Correspondence should be addressed to:
Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
The present study addresses the regulatory network of Escherichia coli and offers a global view of the short- and long-term regulation of its metabolic pathways. The regulatory mechanisms responsible for key metabolic activities and the structure behind such mechanisms are detailed. Most metabolic functions are dependent on the activity of transcriptional regulators over gene expression - the so-called long-term regulation. However, enzymatic regulation - the so-called short-term regulation - often overlays transcriptional regulation and even, in particular metabolic pathways, enzymatic regulation may prevail. As such, understanding the balance between these two types of regulation is necessary to be able to predict and control cell responses, specifically cell responses to the various environmental stresses.